Features of Usіng Pulse-Doppler Radars for Determіnatіon Low-Altіtude Targets
Metrology and instruments
In this paper, we analyzed the features of Doppler processing in radars. In ground based radars, the amount of clutter in the radar receiver depends heavily on the radar-to-target geometry. The amount clutter is considerably higher when the radar beam has to face toward the ground. Furthermore, radars employing high PRFs have to deal with an increased amount of clutter due to folding in range. Clutter introduces additional difficulties for airborne radars when detecting ground targets and other
... d targets and other targets flying at low altitudes. This is illustrated in Fig. 10.5. Returns from ground clutter emanate from ranges equal to the radar altitude to those which exceed the slant range along the main-beam, with considerable clutter returns in the side-lobes and main-beam. The presence of such large amounts of clutter interferes with radar detection capabilities and makes it extremely difficult to detect targets in the look-down mode. This difficulty in detecting ground or low altitude targets has led to the development of pulse Doppler radars where other targets, kinematics such as Doppler effects are exploited to enhance detection. Pulse Doppler radars utilize high PRFs to increases the average transmitted power and rely on target's Doppler frequency for detection. The increase in the average transmitted power leads to an improved SNR which helps the detection process. However, using high PRFs compromise the radar's ability to detect long range target because of range ambiguities associated with high PRF applications. Techniques such as using specialized Doppler filters to reject clutter are very effective and are often employed by pulse Doppler radars. Pulse Doppler radars can measure target Doppler frequency (or its range rate) fairly accurately and use the fact that ground clutter typically possesses limited Doppler shift when compared with moving targets to separate the two returns. Clutter filtering is used to remove both main-beam and altitude clutter returns, and fast moving target detection is done effectively by exploiting its Doppler frequency. In many modern pulse Doppler radars the limiting factor in detecting slow moving targets is not clutter but rather another source of noise referred to as phase noise generated from the receiver local oscillator instabilities.