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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a general concept that involves renal tissue regardless of the aetiology of the leading disease. CKD occurs in one out of every two patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and appreciably limits the duration and quality of life. CKD can be diagnosed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is recognised as the most representative indicator of the quantity and total workload of nephrons. However, the decrease in GFR occurs at an advanced stage of nephropathy anddoi:10.14341/dm9268 fatcat:gmsf65g37vgxll2f7uzv72oiwi