Regulation of chondrogenesis by protein kinase C: Emerging new roles in calcium signalling

Csaba Matta, Ali Mobasheri
2014 Cellular Signalling  
During chondrogenesis, complex intracellular signalling pathways regulate an intricate series of events including condensation of chondroprogenitor cells and nodule formation followed by chondrogenic differentiation. Reversible phosphorylation of key target proteins is of particular importance during this process. Among protein kinases known to be involved in these pathways, protein kinase C (PKC) subtypes play pivotal roles. However, the precise function of PKC isoenzymes during chondrogenesis
more » ... and in mature articular chondrocytes is still largely unclear. In this review, we provide a historical overview of how the concept of PKC-mediated chondrogenesis has evolved, starting from the first discoveries of PKC isoform expression and activity. Signalling components upstream and downstream of PKC, leading to the stimulation of chondrogenic differentiation, are also discussed. Although it is evident that we are only at the beginning to understand what roles are assigned to PKC subtypes during chondrogenesis and how they are regulated, there are many yet unexplored aspects in this area. There is evidence that calcium signalling is a central regulator in differentiating chondroprogenitors; still, clear links between intracellular calcium signalling and prototypical calcium-dependent PKC subtypes such as PKCalpha have not been established. Exploiting putative connections and shedding more light on how exactly PKC signalling pathways influence cartilage formation should open new perspectives for a better understanding of healthy as well as pathological differentiation processes of chondrocytes, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches.
doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.01.011 pmid:24440668 fatcat:2vbjxtbtsfabbpq5o7qumgcj3e