Structural and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Psychiatric Disorders

Godfrey D Pearlson, Vince Calhoun
2007 Canadian journal of psychiatry  
T he field of neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders has made enormous advances since the first computed tomography studies of patients with chronic schizophrenia some 30 years ago. Some of the more important recent trends include the integration of genetic information into both structural and functional studies, leading to "neuroimaging genomics." Other major influences on psychiatric neuroimaging in the last few years involve the use of a series of novel quantitative image measurement
more » ... s developed for both structural and functional imaging studies, including VBM and algorithms for fusion of images from different imaging modalities (for example, sMRI and fMRI). Although the widespread availability of whole-brain voxel-based measurement W La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, vol 52, no 3, mars 2007 158 Objective: To report on recent advances in both structural and functional brain imaging studies in psychiatry and to highlight their importance for the field. Method: We reviewed recently published articles dealing with such advances and abstracted them into a selective review of the field. Results: Some of the more important trends include integration of genetic information into research studies, use of novel quantitative image measurement techniques, studies of new subject populations, the use of pharmacologic probes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the incorporation of elements of virtual reality into fMRI task stimuli, and the methodological innovation of hyperscanning. Conclusions: A whole series of new approaches and techniques are resulting in rapid advances in neuroimaging in psychiatry. Several of these show the potential for clinical translation. (Can J Psychiatry 2007;52:158-166) Information on funding and support and author affiliations appears at the end of the article. Clinical Implications · Quantitative measurements obtained from brain imaging are beginning to illuminate our understanding of disease mechanisms in schizophrenia and to cross traditional diagnostic boundaries. · Future definitions of schizophrenia (and many other psychiatric illnesses) will likely come to rely more on such measures. Limitations · The more recent, most informative quantitative brain-imaging measurements are currently not widely available outside specialized centres. · Such measures are also generally more informative at a group, rather than an individual, level. Résumé : L'imagerie par résonance magnétique structurelle et fonctionnelle des troubles psychiatriques Objectif : Rendre compte des récents progrès des études par imagerie cérébrale tant structurelle que fonctionnelle en psychiatrie, et souligner leur importance dans le domaine. Méthode : Nous avons examiné les articles récemment publiés qui traitent de ces progrès et les avons résumés en une synthèse sélective du domaine.
doi:10.1177/070674370705200304 pmid:17479523 fatcat:k5p44bpl6vd3bgbqdof3x5xbwu