Effect of Yeast-Fermented Citrus Pulp as a Protein Source on Nutrient Intake, Digestibility, Nitrogen Balance and In Situ Digestion Kinetics in Nili Ravi Buffalo Bulls

Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Sharif, Khurram Ashfaq, Amjad Islam Aqib, Muhammad Saeed, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Mahmoud Alagawany
2021 Animals  
A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of single cell protein (SCP) supplement as a protein source on nutrient intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and in situ digestion kinetics in four Nili Ravi buffalo bulls. Four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous concentrates containing 3, 6, 9 and 12% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-fermented citrus pulp were formulated. All animals were fed a ration with a concentrate/forage ratio of 50:50. Diets were provided ad libitum twice a day as a total mixed
more » ... y as a total mixed ration in a 4 × 4 Latin Square Design. Each experimental period lasted 3 weeks while the overall study 12 weeks. The first 2 weeks of each experimental period were used as adaptation period while the third week as collection period. Chemical composition of fermented citrus pulp appeared as an excellent source of protein. No significant difference was observed on dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients and SCP among all the treatments. Moreover, no significant effect was observed on ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen at different times. Rate of disappearance and lag time of in situ dry matter digestion kinetics remained nonsignificant regardless of SCP percentage. Based on results of similar nutrients intake, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal parameters it is concluded that SCP could be used in the concentrate diet of ruminant up to 12%. Furthermore, the SCP has the potential of an alternative protein source in animal diet formulation.
doi:10.3390/ani11061713 fatcat:jotlqjpowvfclg7tebk3lo32oy