Refusal Strategies Used by American Speakers and Indonesian Learners of English
Voices of English Language Education Society
This article analyses refusal strategies applied by American speakers of English and Indonesian students of English as a foreign language. There were 21 subjects taking part in the study. Being descriptive qualitative, the research used discourse completion test and interview as the instruments of data collection and Miles and Huberman's flowchart as the tool to analyze the data. To be trustworthy, the data were triangulated through different sources, member checks and external check. The
... al check. The results indicate that both categories of subjects applied fourteen strategies to refuse, i.e. simply saying no, telling inability, avoiding, using hedges, making excuses, wishing, stating an option, promising to accept in the future, regretting, accepting but functioning as refusing, conditioning as past acceptance, gratitude/appreciation, pause fillers and statement of positive feeling/opinion; (2) some similarities and differences of strategies were found being used by both groups. Eleven strategies were found to be similar, namely, simply saying no, telling inability, delaying, making excuse, stating an option, regretting, wishing, lacking enthusiasm, gratitude/appreciation, pause fillers and statement of positive feeling. Meanwhile, the different refusal strategies used by those groups were hedging, promising to accept in the future and conditioning as past acceptance.