Design guidelines for perovskite/silicon 2-terminal tandem solar cells: an optical study
Perovskite/silicon 2-terminal tandem cells have made significant advances towards >25% efficiency. Despite this, there is limited understanding of how the optical properties of the materials affect the optical losses within the tandem cell. Using an accurate optical model, we investigate, identify and propose solutions to the optical loss mechanisms inherent in a typical perovskite/silicon 2-terminal tandem cell. The results highlight, firstly, the requirement for low absorption in all layers
... ion in all layers above the perovskite film, and secondly, the importance of the proper choice of refractive index and thickness of charge transport layers of the perovskite cell, in order to minimize reflection at the interfaces formed by these layers. We demonstrate that the proper choice of these parameters is based on, and can be guided by, basic optics principles which serve as design guidelines. With careful selection of charge transport materials, optimization of the perovskite absorber thickness and the introduction of light trapping within the silicon cell, a matched current of over 20 mA/cm 2 can be realized, enabling efficiencies greater than 30% using currently available cell processing methods and materials.