Streptozotocin (STZ) mediates acute upregulation of serum and pancreatic osteopontin (OPN): a novel islet-protective effect of OPN through inhibition of STZ-induced nitric oxide production
Journal of Endocrinology
Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted acidic phosphoprotein that binds to a cell-surface integrin-binding motif and is involved in many inflammatory and immune-modulating disorders. There is compelling evidence that soluble OPN can in a variety of situations help cells survive an otherwise lethal insult. In this study we show that OPN is localized in the rat pancreatic islets and ducts. Staining of pancreatic serial sections with islet hormone antibodies showed that all islet cells express OPN. Rats
... reated with a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg) showed acute upregulation of serum OPN levels and pancreatic OPN mRNA and protein. Serum OPN dropped by the end of day 7 but was still higher than prediabetic levels. Pancreatic mRNA and protein showed a similar pattern. Twenty-four hours after STZ injection, the intensified OPN expression was localized towards the periphery of the islets and surrounded the remaining insulin-positive cells. To explore the significance of OPN acute upregulation, freshly isolated islets were pretreated with OPN (0.15–15 nM) before addition of STZ. OPN significantly reduced the STZ-induced NO levels in the islets through an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-dependent reduction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels. Addition of OPN to freshly isolated mildly diabetic islets (blood glucose <300 mg/dl) significantly improved their glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and reduced their NO levels. Next we investigated the regulation of OPN in β-cells. When STZ (5 mM) was added to the β-cell line RINm5F it significantly increased OPN mRNA levels within 6 h. To distinguish between the effect of STZ and high glucose on OPN transcription, RINm5F cells were transfected with luciferase-labeled rat OPN promoter and treated with STZ (0.05–5 mM) or with glucose (5–25 mM). STZ induced upregulation of OPN promoter activity within 3 h, while high glucose induced upregulation of OPN promoter activity after 48 h. Our data introduce OPN as a novel islet protein that is differentially regulated by STZ and glucose in the islets. OPN initial upregulation after diabetes induction was probably due to STZ-induced toxicity, while maintenance of the high OPN levels might be due to hyperglycemia. The acute induction of OPN after STZ-induced diabetes might represent an endogenous mechanism to protect the islets against STZ-induced cytotoxicity, partly via an RGD-dependent NO regulatory mechanism.