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Knuth's buddy system is an attractive algorithm for managing storage allocation, and it can be made to operate in real-time. At some point, storage-management systems must either over-provide storage or else confront the issue of defragmentation. Because storage conservation is important to embedded systems, we investigate the issue of defragmentation for heaps that are managed by the buddy system. In this paper, we present tight bounds for the amount of storage necessary to avoiddoi:10.1145/1070891.1065942 fatcat:zogzh34rdvg2vh4ihgkkw3ym5q