Acute exposure to fenthion in juveniles of white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus): toxic effects, changes in cholinesterase activity and potential use in environmental monitoring

Borbón Javier F., González-Mantilla Jaime Fernando
2012 Revista Ciencias de la Salud  
Fenthion is an organophosphate insecticide used worldwide that may pollute waters after itsapplication causing potential problems in public health and poisoning in domestic and wildlifeanimals. Objective: to evaluate toxic effects, butyrylcholinesterase activity (BChE) and use inenvironmental monitoring, 34 juveniles of white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus) were distributedin 3 groups (control, 0,13 ppm and 2 ppm fenthion) for 96 h. Materials and methods: fishwere exposed in 10-gallon tanks;
more » ... 10-gallon tanks; symptoms, gross lesions post-mortem, viscerosomatic index(VSI) and plasma BChE activity were evaluated. Mean comparisons for each variable amongtreatments were performed (ANOVA, α=0,05). Results: severe signs were seen in 3 specimens(3/11) of 2 ppm fenthion between 11 and 34 h of exposure. These signs were frantic swimming,muscle tremors and loss of swimming axis. In 0,13 ppm, mild to moderate signs (tremors andcaudal fin flapping) were observed in some of the fish. The VSI (control = 5,3 ± 0,5; 0,13 ppm= 6,9 ± 0,3 and 2 ppm = 7,3 ± 0,6) was significantly different between exposed to fenthion andcontrols. BChE activity (control = 185,0 ± 20,4; 0,13 ppm = 12,5 ± 2,3 and 2 ppm = 9,8 ± 1,8nmoles / ml plasma / min) showed significant inhibition in exposed to fenthion as compared tocontrols. Conclusions: the present work confirmed the toxic effects of fenthion in white cachamajuveniles. Results found in BChE activity suggest its use in environmental monitoring as a goodbiomarker of organophosphates waterborne exposure.
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