Typology of the Confrontation of Iranian Society after Mongols' Invasion
پژوهش های تاریخی
Entering Islamic territories in 616 AH, Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, caused outstanding changes in social and political occasions. Political, social and economic outcomes of this invasion were so highlighted that Islamic era in Iran is divided to two main times, i.e. pre and post Mongol raid eras. Those changes were so effective that diverted many social manifestations and basics of Iranian Islamic society. Of course, not all the changes could be causes by Mongols' invasion, and Mongols' raid
... and Mongols' raid was one side of the coin. The other side of those changes was made by Iranians themselves, no matter intentionally or by force, to keep their social lives. All those changes, which caused basic movements in Iranian society, could be referred as "Social Reversal" in Iran after Mongol invasion. Iranian society showed three types of reactions to this social reversal: cooperation, silence and opposition. Those who opposed had two approaches, i.e. Saver-oriented movements and Fatian movements. Saver-oriented movements could be divided to three groups: Factitious Jalal-e-dins, Factitious Mahdies and those who expected Abbasid Kalifah come back again and save them. The three last mentioned saver-oriented movements all believed there will be a saver who will appear and will save all from oppression and outrage and inequity and finally all of them failed to turn into thorough movement due to lack of a coherent framed thought base and school. On the other hand, Fatian movement, which enjoyed a cohesive rulebook and statute and was backed by Iranian elites, could afford more effective successes and became one of the main factors of Ilkhanid internal breakdown and then collapse.