Calculation of lightning electromagnetic fields [chapter]

Vladimir A. Rakov
Fundamentals of Lightning  
Characteristics of measured electric and magnetic fields generated by leaders and return strokes in lightning cloud-to-ground discharges are reviewed. The very close (within tens to hundreds of meters) lightning electromagnetic environment is discussed. Typical field waveforms at distances ranging from 10 m to 200 km are shown. Modeling of lightning return strokes as sources of electromagnetic fields is reviewed. Four classes of models, defined on the basis of the type of governing equations,
more » ... erning equations, are considered. These four classes are: 1) gas-dynamic models, 2) electromagnetic models, 3) distributed-circuit models, and 4) engineering models. Model-predicted fields are compared with measurements.
doi:10.1017/cbo9781139680370.006 fatcat:uombc2d7djfdjol3xubu3jdd4y