Spatial Color Efficacy in Perceived Luxury and Preference to Stay: An Eye-Tracking Study of Retail Interior Environment
Frontiers in Psychology
Color is a significant interior element with the power to influence emotions and behaviors in a particular environment. Numerous studies have investigated the impact of a single color on emotion; however, the collective emotional, cognitive, and behavioral effect created by combinations of colors applied to a space has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study involving both a survey as well as eye-tracking technology, we explored shaping the concept of spatial color efficacy by examining
... different applications of the same color combination in a space to determine whether they may cause different emotional responses, thereby impacting viewers' perception of luxury and intention to stay. A total of 26 interior design students at a university in Korea participated in the study. An environment simulating a hypothetical retail store was developed using a 3D rendering program, and six variations of spatial applications were created for each high luxury color combination and low luxury color combination to be used as stimuli. While viewing the images, participants were asked to identify which image looked most luxurious and in which space would they most want to stay. Results show the following: (a) the same color combination, if applied differently in a physical environment, can create different emotional responses, thereby affecting perceived luxury and preference to stay; (b) even a low luxury color combination can enhance perceived luxury and preference to stay depending on the spatial application; (c) gaze bias exists when selecting the most luxurious space and stating preference to stay as shown in the high correlation between dwell time and choice; in addition, differences in emotional response across images were also observed in the variations of pupil sizes measured during viewing various applications; (d) dark colors used in large amounts of surface were perceived as more luxurious than light colors when the same color combination was applied; and (e) appropriate contrast among colors was more influential in preference to stay than extreme or minimal contrast. Results expand the understanding of human behavior in relation to spatial color efficacy based on the spatial color combination and potential decision-making process in a retail setting.