A Heuristic Approach for Optical Transceiver Placement to Optimize SNR and Illuminance Uniformities of an Optical Body Area Network
The bi-directional information transfer in optical body area networks (OBANs) is crucial at all the three tiers of communication, i.e., intra-, inter-, and beyond-BAN communication, which correspond to tier-I, tier-II, and tier-III, respectively. However, the provision of uninterrupted uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) connections at tier II (inter-BAN) are extremely critical, since these links serve as a bridge between tier-I (intra-BAN) and tier-III (beyond-BAN) communication. Any negligence at
... is level could be life-threatening; therefore, enabling quality-of-service (QoS) remains a fundamental design issue at tier-II. Consequently, to provide QoS, a key parameter is to ensure link reliability and communication quality by maintaining a nearly uniform signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) within the coverage area. Several studies have reported the effects of transceiver related parameters on OBAN link performance, nevertheless the implications of changing transmitter locations on the SNR uniformity and communication quality have not been addressed. In this work, we undertake a DL scenario and analyze how the placement of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps can improve the SNR uniformity, regardless of the receiver position. Subsequently, we show that using the principle of reciprocity (POR) and with transmitter-receiver positions switched, the analysis is also applicable to UL, provided that the optical channel remains linear. Moreover, we propose a generalized optimal placement scheme along with a heuristic design formula to achieve uniform SNR and illuminance for DL using a fixed number of transmitters and compare it with an existing technique. The study reveals that the proposed placement technique reduces the fluctuations in SNR by 54% and improves the illuminance uniformity up to 102% as compared to the traditional approach. Finally, we show that, for very low luminous intensity, the SNR values remain sufficient to maintain a minimum bit error rate (BER) of 10-9 with on-off keying non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) modulation format.