Factors affecting bone growth

Ioannis Gkiatas, Marios Lykissas, Ioannis Kostas-Agnantis, Anastasios Korompilias, Anna Batistatou, Alexandros Beris
2015 The American Journal of Orthopedics  
Bone growth and development are products of the complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors. Longitudinal bone growth depends on the growth plate. The growth plate has 5 different zones-each with a different functional role-and is the final target organ for longitudinal growth. Bone length is affected by several systemic, local, and mechanical factors. All these regulation systems control the final length of bones in a complicated way. Despite its significance to bone stability,
more » ... ne growth in width has not been studied as extensively as longitudinal bone growth. Bone growth in width is also controlled by genetic factors, but mechanical loading regulates periosteal apposition. In this article, we review the most recent data regarding bone growth from the embryonic age and analyze the factors that control bone growth. An understanding of this complex system is important in identifying metabolic and developmental bone diseases and fracture risk.
pmid:25658073 fatcat:igsxzeqqybcoxjlny6hescqa4e