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When measuring the dielectric properties of aqueous samples, the impedance of the electrode/ sample interface can limit low frequency measurements. The electrode polarization problem can be reduced by increasing the effective surface area of the electrodes. In this work, impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize and compare three different electrode surfaces that can be used to mitigate this effect: platinum black, iridium oxide, and ͓polypyrrole/ poly͑styrenesulphonate͔͒ ͑PPy/PSS͒doi:10.1063/1.3284516 pmid:20113135 fatcat:dugdwfdhfnhmjh4w4xi7f6xwpi