A UHPLC-UV Method Development and Validation for Determining Kavalactones and Flavokavains in Piper methysticum (Kava)

Yijin Tang, Christine Fields
2019 Molecules  
An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) separation was developed for six kava pyrones (methysticin, dihydromethysticin (DHM), kavain, dihydrokavain (DHK), desmethoxyyangonin (DMY), and yangonin), two unidentified components, and three Flavokavains (Flavokavain A, B, and C) in Piper methysticum (kava). The six major kavalactones and three flavokavains are completely separated (Rs > 1.5) within 15 min using a HSS T3 column and a mobile phase at 60 °C. All the peaks in the LC
more » ... atogram of kava extract or standard solutions were structurally confirmed by LC-UV-MS/MS. The degradations of yangonin and flavokavains were observed among the method development. The degradation products were identified as cis-isomerization by MS/MS spectra. The isomerization was prevented or limited by sample preparation in a non-alcoholic solvent or with no water. The method uses the six kava pyrones and three flavokavains as external standards. The quantitative calibration curves are linear, covering a range of 0.5–75 μg/mL for the six kava pyrones and 0.05–7.5 μg/mL for the three flavokavains. The quantitation limits for methysticin, DHM, kavain, DHK, DMY, and yangonin are approximately 0.454, 0.480, 0.277, 0.686, 0.189, and 0.422 μg/mL. The limit of quantification (LOQs) of the three flavokavains are about 0.270, 0.062, and 0.303 μg/mL for flavokavain C (FKC), flavokavain A (FKA), and flavokavain B (FKB). The average recoveries at three different levels are 99.0–102.3% for kavalactones (KLs) and 98.1–102.9% for flavokavains (FKs). This study demonstrates that the method of analysis offers convenience and adequate sensitivity for determining methysticin, DHM, kavain, DHK, yangonin, DMY, FKA, FKB, and FKC in kava raw materials (root and CO2 extract) and finished products (dry-filled capsule and tablet).
doi:10.3390/molecules24071245 fatcat:ea4mftltijazvojfr2b7oiipwe