1991 A Chaotic Hierarchy  
The complexity of dynamical behavior possible in nonlinear (for example, electronic) systems depends only on the number of state variables involved. Single-variable dissipative dynamical systems (like the single-transistor flip-flop) can only possess point attractors. Two-variable systems (like an LC-oscillator) can possess a one-dimensional attractor (limit cycle). Threevariable systems admit two even more complicated types of behavior: a toroidal attractor (of doughnut shape) and a chaotic
more » ... ractor (which looks like an infinitely often folded sheet). The latter is easier to obtain. In four variables, we analogously have the hyper-toroidal and the hyperchaotic attractor, respectively; and so forth. In every higher-dimensional case, all of the lower forms are also possible as well as "mixed cases" (like a combined hypertoroidal and chaotic motion, for example). Ten simple ordinary differential equations, most of them easy to implement electronically, are presented to illustrate the hierarchical tree. A second tree, in which one more dimension is needed for every type, is called the weak hierarchy because the chaotic regimes contained cannot be detected physically and numerically. The relationship between the two hierarchies is posed as an open question. It may be approached empirically -using electronic systems, for example. Unauthenticated Download Date | 7/22/18 8:48 AM Unauthenticated Download Date | 7/22/18 8:48 AM
doi:10.1142/9789814503372_0002 fatcat:qsiagtjyxzaippwiye63bajbqa