The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes

Tama Leventhal, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
2000 Psychological bulletin  
This article provides a comprehensive review of research on the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent well-being. The first section reviews key methodological issues. The following section considers links between neighborhood characteristics and child outcomes and suggests the importance of high socioeconomic status (SES) for achievement and low SES and residential instability for behavioral/emotional outcomes. The third section identifies 3 pathways (institutional
more » ... itutional resources, relationships, and norms/collective efficacy) through which neighborhoods might influence development, and which represent an extension of models identified by C. Jencks and S. Mayer (1990) and R. J. Sampson (1992) . The models provide a theoretical base for studying neighborhood mechanisms and specify different levels (individual, family, school, peer, community) at which processes may operate. Implications for an emerging developmental framework for research on neighborhoods are discussed.
doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.2.309 pmid:10748645 fatcat:smbuymfizndvtbmncnqxs7zwyu