Chemoprotective Effects of Xanthohumol against the Carcinogenic Mycotoxin Aflatoxin B1

Alja Štern, Veronika Furlan, Matjaž Novak, Martina Štampar, Zala Kolenc, Katarina Kores, Metka Filipič, Urban Bren, Bojana Žegura
2021 Foods  
The present study addresses the chemoprotective effects of xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid found in the female inflorescences (hops) of the plant Humulus lupulus L., against the carcinogenic food contaminant aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The chemical reactions of XN and its derivatives (isoxanthohumol (IXN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), and 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN)) with the AFB1 metabolite, aflatoxin B1 exo-8,9-epoxide (AFBO), were investigated in silico, by calculating activation free energies
more » ... ation free energies (ΔG⧧) at the Hartree–Fock level of theory in combination with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and two implicit solvation models. The chemoprotective effects of XN were investigated in vitro in the metabolically competent HepG2 cell line, analyzing its influence on AFB1-induced cytotoxicity using the MTS assay, genotoxicity using the comet and γH2AX assays, and cell cycle modulation using flow cytometry. Our results show that the ΔG⧧ required for the reactions of XN and its derivatives with AFBO are comparable to the ΔG⧧ required for the reaction of AFBO with guanine, indicating that XN, IXN, 8-PN, and 6-PN could act as scavengers of AFBO, preventing DNA adduct formation and DNA damage induction. This was also reflected in the results from the in vitro experiments, where a reduction in AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and DNA single-strand and double-strand breaks was observed in cells exposed to combinations of AFB1 and XN, highlighting the chemoprotective effects of this phytochemical.
doi:10.3390/foods10061331 fatcat:l3btt53x7fd37okekuitv3cquq