Industrial Wastewater Discharge and Compliance Investigation for Environmentally Resilient Rwanda

Israel Dufatanye, Youngjae Lee, Hyungsoo Kim, Sangyoup Lee
2022 Water  
While Rwanda is aiming at environmental pollution resilience and green growth, some industries are still discharging untreated effluent into the environment. This study gives a general overview of the compliance level of industrial effluent discharge in Rwanda and the linked negative environmental impacts. It comprises qualitative and quantitative analyses of data obtained from wastewater samples collected from five selected industries in Rwanda. The selected industries had previously been
more » ... ed and monitored by the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA), due to complains from neighboring residents. The study found that the effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for all concerned industries failed to comply with (i) oil and grease (O&G) national and international tolerable parameter limits or the (ii) fecal coliforms national standard. In addition, a compliance level of 66.7% was observed for key water quality monitoring parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and heavy metals (i.e., lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr)). Following these study findings, one industry was closed by the REMA for deliberately discharging untreated effluent into an adjacent river. This study recommends the adoption of the best available technology for effluent treatment, installation or renovation of existing WWTPs, and the relocation to industrial zones of industries adjacent to fragile environments.
doi:10.3390/w14193100 fatcat:nrzl3rxhjfg2tnec4cleo372um