A cross-sectional study on risk factors for infection with Parvovirus B19 and the association with anaemia in a febrile paediatric population in Ghana
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) occurs globally and can cause severe anaemia. The role of co-infections with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) has been controversially discussed. The study aimed to determine prevalence and severity of B19V infection, and the effect of co-infections on the risk for anaemia. Between November 2013 and April 2015 a total of 1186 hospital visits of children with fever admitted to a hospital in Ghana were recorded. Malaria, B19V and additional diagnostics for fever causes
... s for fever causes were performed. Recent B19V infection was defined as PCR and/or IgM positivity. Risk factors for a B19V infection and for anaemia were analysed. The prevalence of anaemia was compared between children with/without B19V infection, stratified for the presence of malaria. B19V IgM/PCR was positive in 6.4% (n = 76; 40 IgM + , 30 PCR + , 6 IgM + and PCR +). Among the B19V cases 60.5% had a simultaneous P. falciparum infection. B19V IgM positivity but not PCR positivity was associated with moderate-severe anaemia (OR = 2.6; 95%-CI: 1.3–5.3; P < 0.01 vs. OR = 0.9; 95%-CI: 0.4–1.8; P = 0.70). P. falciparum and IgM positive B19V infection were independent risk factors for anaemia with no evidence of effect modification. Our data show a significant association between B19V infection, defined as IgM but not PCR positivity, and moderate-severe anaemia. A multiplicative effect of B19V and P. falciparum infection was not found.