Distinct sterol and nonsterol signals for the regulated degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase
Journal of Biological Chemistry
The in vivo turnover rate of the endoplasmic reticulum protein 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, is accelerated when excess MVA or sterols are added to the growth medium of cells. As we have shown recently (Roitelman, J., Bar-Nun, S., Inoue, S., and Simoni, R. D. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 16085-16091), perturbation of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis abrogates the MVA-accelerated degradation of HMG-CoA reductase and
... oA reductase and HMGal. Here we show that, in contrast, the sterol-accelerated degradation of HMG-CoA reductase is unaffected by Ca2+ perturbation achieved either by Ca2+ ionophore or by inhibitors of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. The differential effects of Ca2+ perturbation can be attributed neither to global alteration in protein synthesis nor to inhibition of MVA conversion to sterols. Yet, such manipulations markedly reduce the incorporation of MVA into cellular macromolecules, including prenylated proteins. Furthermore, we directly demonstrate that MVA gives rise to at least two distinct signals, one that is essential to support the effect of sterols and another that operates independently of sterols. Our results indicate that the cellular signals operating in the MVA-accelerated turnover of HMG-CoA reductase are distinct from those involved in the sterol-regulated degradation. A working model for the degradation pathway is proposed.