Renal dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases and its consequences

Giacomo Deferrari, Adriano Cipriani, Edoardo La Porta
2020 JN. Journal of Nephrology (Milano. 1992)  
It is well known that the heart and kidney and their synergy is essential for hemodynamic homeostasis. Since the early XIX century it has been recognized that cardiovascular and renal diseases frequently coexist. In the nephrological field, while it is well accepted that renal diseases favor the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, it is not always realized that cardiovascular diseases induce or aggravate renal dysfunctions, in this way further deteriorating cardiac function and creating a
more » ... n and creating a vicious circle. In the same clinical field, the role of venous congestion in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction is at times overlooked. This review carefully quantifies the prevalence of chronic and acute kidney abnormalities in cardiovascular diseases, mainly heart failure, regardless of ejection fraction, and the consequences of renal abnormalities on both organs, making cardiovascular diseases a major risk factor for kidney diseases. In addition, with regard to pathophysiological aspects, we attempt to substantiate the major role of fluid overload and venous congestion, including renal venous hypertension, in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic renal dysfunction occurring in heart failure. Furthermore, we describe therapeutic principles to counteract the major pathophysiological abnormalities in heart failure complicated by renal dysfunction. Finally, we underline that the mild transient worsening of renal function after decongestive therapy is not usually associated with adverse prognosis. Accordingly, the coexistence of cardiovascular and renal diseases inevitably means mediating between preserving renal function and improving cardiac activity to reach a better outcome.
doi:10.1007/s40620-020-00842-w pmid:32870495 fatcat:7fmzmtsg6vfd5iiiv6mvl72kaq