Mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in genetically related strains of Staphylococcus aureus

G W Kaatz, S M Seo
1997 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  
Fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus results from amino acid substitutions at particular locations in the DNA gyrase A and B subunits as well as in the topoisomerase IV A subunit and from NorA-mediated efflux. More than one resistance mechanism may be present in a single strain. Fluoroquinolone-resistant derivatives of SA-1199, a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strain, were selected in vivo or in vitro, and their mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance were identified. We
more » ... that many of the resistance mechanisms described above can develop in derivatives of a single parent strain, either singly or in combination, and can arise in a single step. Variances in MICs for strains with the same apparent resistance mechanisms likely are due to the presence of new or undetected but established means of fluoroquinolone resistance. NorA-mediated resistance can occur in the apparent absence of topoisomerase mutations and in some strains may be the result of a promoter region mutation causing increased expression of norA. However, increased expression of norA can occur independently of this mutation, suggesting that a regulatory locus for this gene exists elsewhere on the chromosome.
doi:10.1128/aac.41.12.2733 fatcat:dhfejxavrvhcdfuyui4rebmnl4