Biomineralized Materials as Model Systems for Structural Composites: 3D Architecture

Zian Jia, Zhifei Deng, Ling Li
2022 Advanced Materials  
Biomineralized materials are sophisticated material systems with hierarchical 3D organizations of minerals and organics, which have been broadly used as model systems for fundamental mechanical, materials science, and biomimetic studies. Our current knowledge of the structure of biological materials is mainly based on 2D imaging techniques, which often impedes comprehensive and accurate understanding of the materials' intricate 3D architecture and consequently their mechanics, functions, and
more » ... inspired designs. The development of 3D techniques like tomography, additive manufacturing, and 4D testing has opened pathways to study biological materials fully in 3D. In this review, we discuss how applying 3D techniques can provide new insights into biomineralized materials that are either well-known or possess complex microstructures that are extremely challenging to understand in the 2D framework. Specifically, the diverse structures of biomineralized materials are understood based on four universal structural motifs. Nacre is selected as an example to demonstrate how the progression of knowledge from 2D to 3D can bring substantial improvements to the growth mechanism, biomechanics theories, and bioinspired designs. State-of-the-art multiscale 3D tomographic techniques are discussed with a focus on their integration with 3D geometric quantification, 4D in-situ experiments, and multiscale modeling. Outlook is given on the emerging approaches to investigate the synthesis-structure-function-biomimetics relationship. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1002/adma.202106259 pmid:35085421 fatcat:fsyqechls5gdbkgfqkjvv5qglq