Effects of Inclination Angles on Stepped Chute Flows
Owing to its effective energy dissipation and aeration, a stepped spillway is commonly used for flood release in hydraulic projects. Its conventional design features horizontal step surfaces. Designed for certain flow rates, it does not function satisfactorily at larger discharges. To improve this, layouts with inclined step surfaces, both downward and upward, are proposed. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling in 3D is performed to examine and compare their flow properties in the
... rties in the skimming flow. The results suggest that a shift from a downward to an upward layout leads to a gradual decrease in the flow velocity at the chute end; the latter exhibit higher energy dissipation efficiency. Moreover, equations are developed to estimate the velocity and energy loss. The flow velocity in the developing zone, described by a power law, shows a decline with an increase in the angle of inclination. The downward layout is subjected to somewhat higher risk of cavitation if implemented in a prototype. The extreme pressure loads acting upon an upward layout are larger, and a correlation is proposed for its prediction. On an inclined surface, either upward or downward, the pressure demonstrates an S-shaped distribution. On a vertical surface, the flow pressure increases, after an initial decline over a short distance, towards the chute bottom.