Greater breadth of vaccine-induced immunity in females than males is mediated by increased antibody diversity in germinal center B cells [article]

Rebecca L. Ursin, Santosh Dhakal, Hsuan Liu, Sahana Jayaraman, Han-Sol Park, Harrison R. Powell, Morgan L. Sherer, Kirsten E. Littlefield, Ashley L. Fink, Zexu Ma, Alice L. Mueller, Allison P. Chen (+6 others)
2022 bioRxiv   pre-print
AbstractInactivated influenza vaccines induce greater antibody responses in females than males among both humans and mice. To test the breadth of protection, we used recombinant mouse-adapted A/California/2009 (maA/Cal/09) H1N1 viruses containing mutations at one (1M), two (2M), or three (3M) antigenic sites, in addition to a virus containing the 1M mutation and a substitution of the Ca2 antigenic site (Sub) with one derived from an H5 hemagglutinin (HA) to challenge mice of both sexes.
more » ... g maA/Cal/09 vaccination, females produced greater virus-specific class-switched IgG and IgG2c antibodies against the vaccine and all mutant viruses, and antibodies from females recognized more unique, linear HA epitopes than antibodies from males. While females had greater neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers against the vaccine virus, both sexes showed lower neutralization capacity against mutant viruses. After virus challenge, vaccinated females had lower pulmonary virus titers and reduced morbidity than males against the 1M and 2M viruses, but not the Sub virus. Females generated greater numbers of germinal center (GC) B cells containing superior somatic hypermutation frequencies than vaccinated males. Deletion of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Aicda) eliminated female-biased immunity and protection against the 2M virus. Harnessing methods to improve GC B cell responses and frequencies of somatic hypermutations, especially in males, should be considered in the development of universal influenza vaccines.SummaryCompared with males, inactivated influenza vaccination of female mice causes greater production of class-switched, somatically-hypermutated antibodies and a more robust germinal center B cell response, leading to more diverse H1N1 antigen recognition and better protection against mutant influenza A viruses.
doi:10.1101/2022.05.31.494237 fatcat:gxfpqkt7hzdk5jaajx5237myy4