Effect of Controlled Nucleation of Ice Crystals on the Primary Drying Stage during Lyophilization

Hidenori Kawasaki, Toshinori Shimanouchi, Kanako Takahashi, Yukitaka Kimura
2018 Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin  
The freezing stage cannot be directly controlled, which leads to variation in product quality and low productivity during the lyophilization process. Our objective was to establish a robust design space for the primary drying stage using ice nucleation control based on the pressurization and depressurization technique. We evaluated the specific surface area (SSA), water content, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and water vapor transfer resistance of the dried layer (R p ) of the
more » ... (R p ) of the products. The ice nucleation control resulted in a reduction of the SSA value and in an increase in water content. SEM observation suggested that the ice nucleation control enabled formation of large ice crystals, which was consistent with the reduction in the R p value. As a result, the generation of collapsed cakes was inhibited, whereas 18% of the collapsed cakes were observed without ice nucleation control. Finally, this technique succeeded in determining a robust design space for the primary drying stage to produce uniform products of higher productivity. It was considered, from the present findings, that controlling the formation of large ice crystals impacted the product quality and productivity.
doi:10.1248/cpb.c18-00494 fatcat:zsjijme4lfcvvc3wqzul4bafti