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The freezing stage cannot be directly controlled, which leads to variation in product quality and low productivity during the lyophilization process. Our objective was to establish a robust design space for the primary drying stage using ice nucleation control based on the pressurization and depressurization technique. We evaluated the specific surface area (SSA), water content, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and water vapor transfer resistance of the dried layer (R p ) of thedoi:10.1248/cpb.c18-00494 fatcat:zsjijme4lfcvvc3wqzul4bafti