Технології навчання фізичної культури The Formation of Posture of Pupils as an Actual Problem

Alla Aleshina
Problem. Posture is formed in the process of growth of the child in a close relationship with the development of other motor functions. The particular importance in the formation of a posture has a spine, because it is the basis of the skeleton on which all parts of the body are formed [1; 4; 6]. The correct posture of the body is relatively easy to keep in motion, but to keep the position of the body during prolonged standing or sitting is extremely difficult even for those who regularly
more » ... d in sports. To maintain the correct posture for a long time one should have not only sufficient culture of muscles, but also enough strehth-fitness of the muscles that keep the body in correct posture position [2; 4; 6]. The formation and preservation of skills of correct posture and the prevention and correction of possible violations, constitute one of the major sections of physical education. The main period of the formation of posture accounts for younger school age. At the same time forming a correct posture of schoolchildren should be made throughout the period of studying. Purpose of work to determine the theoretical aspects of the posture of students during physical education. Tasks: 1. To examine factors that influence the formation of posture. 2. To identify key aspects of correct posture of schoolchildren. The main material. Formation of posturea difficult act of coordinated dynamic, static tensions and relaxations of neuromuscular system, characterized by processes of excitation and inhibition in the central nervous system [4; 6]. Statics of a person is characterized by a vertical body position in space, which determines its posture. Posture of a man, his usual posture, the location of the trunk and extremities, is typical for each person individually. But posture has properties to change due to various factors [4] . According to experts [4; 6], the formation of posture depends on the anatomical, physiological and social factors. Anatomical factors determine the posture of the childthe shape of the spine and its location on the anterior and medial axis of the body, the severity of physiological bends, the presence of deformations. The appearance of the spine depends on the position of the pelvis and the angle of its inclination. Important anatomical determinant of posture are also ties and muscles of the spine, of upper and lower extremities. The physiological factors that affect posture, and determine its formation are the state of the individual development of motor skills and static reactions, the balance of the basic nervous processes. Physiological patterns of the bearing characterize it as a dynamic stereotype. Biomechanical features of the formation of posture were researched by V. O. Kashuba (2002) . However, he identified a number of factors that have a significant impact on the posture: socio-economic, heredity, environment, static-dynamic regime of pupils, nutrition, development of musculoskeletal diseases, physical activity, irrational exercise, ergonomic requirements to the baby furniture, ontogenesis of motility in certain age periods, the forces acting on the human body. Analysis of the literature [3; 4] shows that an imbalance in muscle development is one of the reasons of violations of posture. During the research O. I. Bychuk [2] found that the change of tone of the skeletal muscles that are involved in the formation of posture is a sign of possible violations. To the main muscles