The Importance of Time Congruity in the Organisation

J.A. Francis-Smythe, I.T. Robertson
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="Wiley"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="" style="color: black;">Applied Psychology</a> </i> &nbsp;
Time Congruity In 1991 Kaufman, Lane and Lindquist proposed that time congruity in terms of an individual's time preferences and the time use methods of an organisation would lead to satisfactory performance and enhancement of quality of work and general life. The research reported here presents a study which uses commensurate person and job measures of time personality in an organisational setting to assess the effects of time congruity on one aspect of work life, job-related affective
more &raquo; ... ng. Results show that time personality and time congruity were found to have direct effects on well-being and the influence of time congruity was found to be mediated through time personality, thus contributing to the person-job ( P-J) fit literature which suggests that direct effects are often more important than indirect effects. The study also provides some practical examples of ways to address some of the previously cited methodological issues in P-J fit research. Similarly, the effects of fit on a number of outcomes have been considered; evidence for P-J fit effects have been shown across widely different occupations (Harrison,1978), different age groups (Kahana, Liang & Felton,1980) and in different countries (Tannenbaum & Kuleck,1978). In general, Edwards (1991) concludes (a) fit (as represented by desires/supplies) has been shown to be positively related to job satisfaction, (b) the results with performance have been equivocal, (c) negative relationships have been shown to exist with absenteesism, turnover and resentment and (d) positive relationships have been shown to exist with job involvement, commitment, trust and well-being. This paper is concerned directly with the relationships between fit and job satisfaction and well-being (and through these indirectly with turnover). It presents an empirical study of an organisation where the Recent research by Pelled and Xin (1999, p.886) emphasises the importance of consideration of emotions in turnover research "Unpleasant emotional states experienced in a given situation encourage escape from that situation, while pleasurable emotional states discourage such escape". They provide evidence that mood also predicts turnover (where mood is defined as the experience of negative and positive emotions e.g.distressed, fearful, nervous, anxious, enthusiastic, active and alert e.g. Watson, Clark & Tellegen,1985; Warr, 1990) . George and Jones (1996) suggests both job satisfaction and Job satisfaction The 16 item scale of Warr, Cook & Wall (1979) was used to measure intrinsic, extrinsic and total job satisfaction. α coefficients were reported by Warr et al. (1979) to range from 0.79 to 0.85 on the intrinsic scale and 0.74 to 0.78 on the extrinsic, coefficients in this study were 0.82 and 0.74 respectively. Affective well-being The 12 word instrument of Warr (1990) was used to measure 2 scales of affective well-being: anxiety-contentment and depressionenthusiasm. α coefficients reported by Warr (1990) were 0.86 for depressionenthusiasm and ranged from 0.88 to 0.89 for anxiety-contentment, coefficients in this study were 0.83 and 0.82 respectively. Job-related Affective well-being(JAWB) Scores of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, anxiety-contentment and depressive-enthusiasm were combined (equal weights) to give the aggregate JAWB score. Inter-correlations between each of these variables ranged from +0.57 to +0.80 and correlations of the variables with the aggregate measure ranged from +0.84 to +0.88, (Table 1) . Time Personality Indicator (TPI) The 43 item 5-point scale (Francis-Smythe & Robertson, 1999a) was used to measure an individual's Time Personality. The five scales were:Time Awareness (relates to actual time and how time is spent
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="">doi:10.1111/1464-0597.00136</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">fatcat:bs4q7ohtevhn5jw6kuujevttje</a> </span>
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