A review: The development of double row spacing to improve land productivity and income of rubber smallholders
E3S Web of Conferences
Low prices of rubber has been a serious problem to rubber smallholders in Indonesia. Rubber-based intercropping systems offers a practical solution to this issue and increasing overall productivity of intercrops, for example upland rice and maize. This study reviewed the suitable spatial arrangements in rubber planting to long term impact based intercropping systems. A field experiment was established in a smallholder rubber plantation in Tanah Laut Regency, South Kalimantan with area of 50 ha.
... Two planting patterns of rubber PB 260 clone were tested: (1) single row planting pattern (SR) by 6 m x 3 m, and (2) double row planting pattern (DR) by 18 m x 2 m x 2.5 m. The experiment showed that girth of rubber trees in the SR system at the first tapping year was slightly larger than in DR system, even though statistically it was not significant. The latex yield per tree of SR and DR systems were similar, however, latex yield per hectare of SR system was higher than DR system due to a higher tree population in SR system. The DR system was technically suitable for long term intercropping, because when rubber tree can reached 8 to 9 years old and light penetration was more than 80% at distance from the rubber row. The total area required for rubber, upland rice and maize grown in monoculture to produce an equivalent of a one hectare of rubber-upland rice-maize intercrop is 1.87. This means the intercropping has an advantage compared to monoculture.