The Association between Ergonomic Risk Factors, RULA Score, and Musculoskeletal Pain among School Children: A Preliminary Result
Global Journal of Health Science
A study was done to investigate the risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among school children in Malaysia. Two schools in the Klang Valley and one in Johor Bahru were selected. A cross sectional study was done baginning February 2009 until May 2009. Two hundred and twenty nine pupils among 2 nd Grade (age 8 years) and 5 th Grade (age 11 years) from three school were selected to participate in this study. Musculoskeletal symptoms were recorded using Modified Nordiq Body
... ified Nordiq Body Map Questionnaires; Tanita weight measurement was used to measure school bag weight and students' weight. Modified Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) was used to assess the awkward posture of the students' torso namely bending forward movement, leaning, sitting and twisting. A high prevalence of MSD among school children aged 11 years old (5 th grade) was found (68.0%) compared to 8 years old (2 nd grade) with 36.4%. Result also showed that 31.8% of 2 nd grade and 62.2% of 5 th grade students experience upper MSD. Lower MSD complains showed 5 th grade students are at higher percentage than 2 nd grade with 45.5% and 20.9% respectively. Logistic regression analysis controlling for body mass index, sport injuries and history of major accidents revealed that the following factors were related to MSD: home activities (involving television (TV) watching and personal computer (PC) used) [1.889, 95% CI 1.081 -3.301] and bag perception complain among school children [2.148,. For specific MSD symptoms it was found that the duration of home activities using PC or TV exceeding 2 hours was the main the risk factor of upper MSD among school children [4.923,]. In conclusion, combination of risks leads to high increase of MSD among school children in Malaysia.