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Users who join a peer-to-peer network have, in general, sub-optimal incentives to contribute to the network, because of the externalities that exist between them. The result is an inefficient network where the overall levels of contribution are less than would be the case if each peer acted in the interests of the entire network of peers. Incentives provided in the form of prices or contribution rules that require no money transfers can play an important role in reducing these inefficiencydoi:10.1016/j.comnet.2004.03.021 fatcat:w4omawr4ejdubdbnc7fqlseibm