Abstracts for 16th National Congress of Anatomy, 11th-14th September, 2014, Malatya, Turkey

2014 Anatomy (International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy)  
First university during republic period in Turkey was established on 1933. The numbers of universities increased to 7 in 1959, 12 in 1973, 27 in 1982, 29 in 1987 (of one is private), 53 in 1992 (of 2 are private), 93 in 2006 (25 private), 177 in 2014 (73 private). Based on TUIK date, gross schooling rate is 74% and net schooling rate is 38.50% in higher education. However, based on the date of Higher Education Council, these rate are above %80 and %40 respectively with the number of students
more » ... roaching to 5.5 million. Today, the number of teaching staff reached to 141,647. Of this, 86.20% (122,116) employed by the state universities, %13.44 (19,188) are in private universities and 0.26% are in private vocational high schools. Total number of academic staff is 63,271. Of this, 84.76% (53,630) employed in state universities. 31.43% of academic staff are professors, 19.97% (12,634) associate professors and 48.60% are assistant professor. Total number of students are 5,449,961. Of this 93.38% (5,089,291) are studying in state universities, 6.44% (350,999) are private universities and 0.18% (9671) are in private vocational high schools. Traditional mapping of the human brainstem, as of other anatomical structures, is based on information from Nissl and myelin-stained sections, and information from connections and physiology. Using chemical markers for marking has started with acetylcholinesterase staining from 1982 onwards, continuing with tyrosine hydroxylase staining for monoamines, and antibody markers (i.e. calbindin, parvalbumin). Using gene expression for defining anatomical structures is a new concept, after recent developments in molecular biology and biotechnology. With in situ hybridization (ISH), it is possible to localize DNA and RNA within intact cells and tissues without destroying the structure. Anatomical organization of the human brainstem is a complex mixture of compact neuronal groups (nuclei) and dispersed cell areas with varying cytoarchitecture. There are 438 structures we have defined so far in the human brainstem (Paxinoset al., 2012). I have performed the analysis of the human brainstem for Allen Institute BRAINSPAN Atlas of the Developing Human Brain and Atlas of the Human Brain projects, and prepared reference atlases for the developing 21 post-conception weeks (pcw) human brainstem. As examples, calretiningene CALB2 was expressed in the solitary nucleus, dorsal paramedian nucleus, and cochlear nucleus, glutamate gene GRIK2 in the gracile and cuneate nuclei, neuropeptide Y gene NPY in the intermediate reticular nucleus, and somatostatingene SST in locus coeruleus and medial parabrachial nucleus. This presentation will show how expression of genes in the brainstem define anatomy of the numerous nuclei, and the digital reference atlases created for 15 and 21pcw,and adult human brain.(www.alleninstitute.org)
doi:10.2399/ana.14.001s fatcat:iop72ynb5ffaboufdfygzsimyi