Changed Energy State and Increased Mitochondrial β-Oxidation Rate in Liver of Rats Associated with Lowered Proton Electrochemical Potential and Stimulated Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP-2) Expression

Hans J. Grav, Karl J. Tronstad, Oddrun A. Gudbrandsen, Kjetil Berge, Kari E. Fladmark, Tom C. Martinsen, Helge Waldum, Hege Wergedahl, Rolf K. Berge
2003 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
Lowering of plasma triglyceride levels by hypolipidemic agents is caused by a shift in the liver cellular metabolism, which become poised toward peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ␣-regulated fatty acid catabolism in mitochondria. After dietary treatment of rats with the hypolipidemic, modified fatty acid, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), the energy state parameters of the liver were altered at the tissue, cell, and mitochondrial levels. Thus, the hepatic phosphate potential,
more » ... gy charge, and respiratory control coefficients were lowered, whereas rates of oxygen uptake, oxidation of pyridine nucleotide redox pairs, ␤-oxidation, and ketogenesis were elevated. Moderate uncoupling of mitochondria from TTA-treated rats was confirmed, as the proton electrochemical potential (⌬p) was 15% lower than controls. The change affected the ⌬ component only, leaving the ⌬pH component unaltered, suggesting that TTA causes induction of electrogenic ion transport rather than electrophoretic fatty acid activity. TTA treatment induced expression of hepatic uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) in rats as well as in wild type and PPAR␣-deficient mice, accompanied by a decreased double bond index of the mitochondrial membrane lipids. However, changes of mitochondrial fatty acid composition did not seem to be related to the effects on mitochondrial energy conductance. As TTA activates PPAR␦, we discuss how this subtype might compensate for deficiency of PPAR␣. The overall changes recorded were moderate, making it likely that liver metabolism can maintain its function within the confines of its physiological regulatory framework where challenged by a hypolipemic agent such as TTA, as well as others. Administration of 3-thia fatty acids to rats leads to hypolipidemia. The metabolism and biological effects of these non-
doi:10.1074/jbc.m303382200 pmid:12756242 fatcat:x2zvtdckkfdbtf5qm36ogfbfcq