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Determining adhesive bond performance for chemically modified wood is important not only for its commercial utility but also for understanding wood bond durability. Bulking modifications occupy space inside the cell wall, limiting the space available for water. We used two bulking modifications on yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.): acetylation (Ac), which bulks and converts a wood hydroxyl group to an ester, while butylene oxide (BO) also bulks the wood but preserves a hydroxyl group.doi:10.3390/f12050546 doaj:58d504cc7a59489fb5d18b471e473007 fatcat:s6jtywcy3nefhbwfqsdvt5okmu