Comparative Adhesive Bonding of Wood Chemically Modified with Either Acetic Anhydride or Butylene Oxide

Charles R. Frihart, Rishawn Brandon, Rebecca E. Ibach, Christopher G. Hunt, Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter
2021 Forests  
Determining adhesive bond performance for chemically modified wood is important not only for its commercial utility but also for understanding wood bond durability. Bulking modifications occupy space inside the cell wall, limiting the space available for water. We used two bulking modifications on yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.): acetylation (Ac), which bulks and converts a wood hydroxyl group to an ester, while butylene oxide (BO) also bulks the wood but preserves a hydroxyl group.
more » ... a hydroxyl group. Both result in lower water uptake; however, the loss of the hydroxyl group with Ac reduces the wood's ability to form hydrogen and other polar bonds with the adhesives. On the other hand, the BO reaction replaces a hydroxyl group with another one along a hydrocarbon chain; thus, this product may not be harder to bond than the unmodified wood. We investigated how these chemical modifications of wood affect bond performance with four adhesives: resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), melamine-formaldehyde (MF), emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI), and epoxy. The ASTM D 905 bond shear strength for both dry and wet samples showed that the BO results were quite similar to the unmodified wood, but the MF and EPI performed poorly on Ac-modified wood, in contrast to the results with RF and epoxy.
doi:10.3390/f12050546 doaj:58d504cc7a59489fb5d18b471e473007 fatcat:s6jtywcy3nefhbwfqsdvt5okmu