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The first large-scale election observation was of Zimbabwe's 1980 independence elections. Since then, election observation has become a regular worldwide feature and many international organisations, official agencies, and non-governmental organisations field observation teams. They all use similar methodologies, largely derived from the original 1980 model. A third of a century later, it may be time to consider whether the use of electoral observation has outlived its usefulness -or is itselfdoi:10.20940/jae/2019/v18i1a1 fatcat:owib33wfcneyxgmo4dibufqdli