Paper-based microfluidic point-of-care diagnostic devices

Ali Kemal Yetisen, Muhammad Safwan Akram, Christopher R. Lowe
2013 Lab on a Chip  
Dipstick and lateral-flow formats have dominated rapid diagnostics over the last three decades. These formats gained popularity in the consumer markets due to their compactness, portability and facile interpretation without external instrumentation. However, lack of quantitation in measurements has challenged the demand of existing assay formats in consumer markets. Recently, paper-based microfluidics has emerged as a multiplexable point-of-care platform which might transcend the capabilities
more » ... existing assays in resource-limited settings. However, paper-based microfluidics can enable fluid handling and quantitative analysis for potential applications in healthcare, veterinary medicine, environmental monitoring and food safety. Currently, in its early development stages, paper-based microfluidics is considered a low-cost, lightweight, and disposable technology. The aim of this review is to discuss: (1) fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices, (2) functionalisation of microfluidic components to increase the capabilities and the performance, (3) introduction of existing detection techniques to the paper platform and (4) exploration of extracting quantitative readouts via handheld devices and camera phones. Additionally, this review includes challenges to scaling up, commercialisation and regulatory issues. The factors which limit paper-based microfluidic devices to become real world products and future directions are also identified. 1223 334160; Tel: +44 (0) 1223 334162 Fig. 1 The array of rapid tests: urinalysis, 8-15 immunoassays, 16-20 veterinary diagnostics, 21-24 food safety, 25-28 environmental, 29-34 biothreats, 35-37 drug abuse. 38-41 Rapid diagnostic tests often have lower specificity and sensitivity than their laboratory bench counterparts. The majority of these tests are simple and provide a yes/no answer where response time is critical to the user.
doi:10.1039/c3lc50169h pmid:23652632 fatcat:low3pziturfzjousreehdirxjm