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The contemporary cultural context of male circumcision among the Bantu-speaking people of sub-Saharan Africa is variable and often transformed among groups who continue the practice. Longstanding tradition, however, was to toughen, train, and initiate male adolescents into warrior status. The normal social context of circumcision was in the adolescent rites of passage known as initiation schools, highly associated with age-grades, age ranked male cohorts whose membership was defined bypmid:10173099 fatcat:t4p2dgc22bfaledbq7ioyyumj4