Lithium-Ion Battery Storage for the Grid—A Review of Stationary Battery Storage System Design Tailored for Applications in Modern Power Grids

Holger Hesse, Michael Schimpe, Daniel Kucevic, Andreas Jossen
2017 Energies  
Battery energy storage systems have gained increasing interest for serving grid support in various application tasks. In particular, systems based on lithium-ion batteries have evolved rapidly with a wide range of cell technologies and system architectures available on the market. On the application side, different tasks for storage deployment demand distinct properties of the storage system. This review aims to serve as a guideline for best choice of battery technology, system design and
more » ... em design and operation for lithium-ion based storage systems to match a specific system application. Starting with an overview to lithium-ion battery technologies and their characteristics with respect to performance and aging, the storage system design is analyzed in detail based on an evaluation of real-world projects. Typical storage system applications are grouped and classified with respect to the challenges posed to the battery system. Publicly available modeling tools for technical and economic analysis are presented. A brief analysis of optimization approaches aims to point out challenges and potential solution techniques for system sizing, positioning and dispatch operation. For all areas reviewed herein, expected improvements and possible future developments are highlighted. In order to extract the full potential of stationary battery storage systems and to enable increased profitability of systems, future research should aim to a holistic system level approach combining not only performance tuning on a battery cell level and careful analysis of the application requirements, but also consider a proper selection of storage sub-components as well as an optimized system operation strategy. capable to effectively equalize fluctuations and can compensate a mismatch of power generation and consumption via a coordinated power supply and energy time-shift. Comprehensive overview to the manifold ESS technologies and their suitability to grid relieving applications have been given in various contributions [4] [5] [6] [7] . Therein individual strength and drawbacks among the competing technologies are highlighted and it has been shown that their suitability might vary strongly with the proposed field of application. An approach to quantitatively compare various different storage technologies with respect to efficiency, power and energy density, response time, maturity and other performance indicators are presented, e.g., in [6, 8] . Overview to presently installed ESS capacities and potential future developments is given elsewhere in more detail [9] . In brief, global storage capacity amounts to approximately 4.67 TWh in 2017 and is predicted to rise to 11.89-15.72 TWh in 2030. Despite Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) hold only a minor share at present, total battery capacity in stationary applications is foreseen with exceptionally high growth rates in their reference case prediction, i.e., rise from a present 11 GWh (2017) to between 100 GWh and 167 GWh in 2030 [9] . A recent review by Weitzel et al. [10] underlines, that the number of publications in the field of BESS has strongly exceeded any other type of electrical energy storage technology. This is attributed mainly to some strong advantages of BESS over other competing storage technologies including very fast response time, high efficiency, low self-discharge and feasibility of scaling due to a modular structure. While the authors describe the energy management and system optimization for various types of ESS in detail, the review does neither give insight to the design of BESS nor provide a guide to cost-benefit analysis for storage systems in stationary applications, which is the scope of this work. Meanwhile, for BESS market growth and future cost prediction analyses have been conducted for both Electric Vehicles (EV) [11] and stationary system integration [12] showing a similar overall trend of significant cost decline attributed mostly to increase of battery cell production capacity. Interestingly, an experience curve analysis reveals the discrepancy of cost reductions observed in the past and projected for the future at the battery cell and the full storage system level: An average annual cost decline of prominent 30% on the cell level but only 12% on the system level have been identified [12] . Furthermore, this work points to a dramatic uncertainty in resulting cost for Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) based storage systems: a vague range of 75-1130 US$/kWh has been derived from cost projections at a potential future production capacity of 1 TWh [12] . It can be concluded, that there is need for increased attention and further R&D on the storage system level to lower cost and improve the performance at the system level, where the application-specific value creation takes place. All aforementioned high-quality contributions clearly contribute to the understanding of individual important aspects using batteries for stationary storage systems, e.g., the requirements for grid-connected BESS applications, storage system design, battery technology as well as energy management and operational control. However, there seems to be lack of a reviewing work providing a summary and a holistic overview to LIB based storage system design tailored specifically to stationary grid-connected applications. This work aims to bridge among the existent literature by providing a comparative analysis and may serve as a guideline to technology choice, system design concept and operation management for future LIB based stationary storage systems. It includes also a framework for profitability analysis and optimization of BESS with one or multiple applications and highlights directions for future research. Figure 1 gives a schematic and formalized overview to the interface of a LIB storage system with the electric grid and highlights components, keywords and aspects of major importance for the analysis and discussion of this review: In brief, a LIB storage system typically includes the battery itself (battery cells assembled to modules and optional pack configurations), a thermal concept or Thermal Management System (TMS) (which may be subdivided to Battery-TMS (B-TMS) and System-TMS (S-TMS)), as well as an Energy Management System (EMS) control. Depending on the application of choice, the power electronics system may consist of single or multiple voltage inverter units (DC/AC link) and potentially a transformer coupling element for integration to higher grid voltage levels. The application side determines attainable profit (alternatively also value generation via increased reliability or savings
doi:10.3390/en10122107 fatcat:zt2tw2druralpmcario6acfsxa