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The major question of this study is: what explains Poland's transition to democracy and capitalism in 1989-1990? In answering this question, this study identifies three major factors. The first factor is Poland's economic and political crisis that had accumulated since the consolidation of Communist rule in Poland after World War II and led to the emergence of one of the largest mass movement in Eastern Europe, Solidarność. The second factor is ideational change, which is associated with everydoi:10.7282/t30g3ng6 fatcat:3dgkvuvyqneldczrvp6ra3rkzq