The bipartite development of men's and women's field hockey in Canada in the context of separate international hockey federations
The purpose of this thesis was to describe and explain the bipartite development of men's and women's field hockey in Canada. Because this could not be done in isolation from the context of separate international hockey federations, the thesis was presented in three parts. In the first part, the evolution of hockey internationally, including the formation of separate federations, was described. In the second part, an historical account of the development of field hockey in Canada was narrated.
... nada was narrated. The third section described the complex international organizational structure, and the connection between development in Canada and the international context. Critical factors and pervading influences which shaped the course of development, both internationally and in Canada, were identified. The bipartite development of field hockey in Canada occurred in three phases. The initial phase represented the period following the foundation of an independent women's hockey association in England, a phenomenon which occurred at the same time as organized field hockey was introduced to Canada. An intermediate phase began when field hockey organizations in Canada first made contact with international federations. The final phase encompassed the years of considerable interaction between the Canadian associations and their international counterparts. The most significant factor in the creation of separate associations in Canada was the fact that the Canadian Field Hockey Association and the Canadian Women's Field Hockey Association were founded at a time when the international federations were proceeding not only independently, but with contrasting practices regarding affiliation and competition.