Analysis of Changes in Land Cover to Support The Management of Gunung Leuser National Park

Ernest Pandiangan, Muhammad Ardiansyah, Omo Rusdiana
2017 Journal of Regional and City Planning  
Gunung Leuser National Park (GLNP) in Aceh and North Sumatra, Indonesia was allocated to protect and preserve its local biodiversity. GLNP implements a national park management policy that adopts a zoning system which includes core, wilderness, rehabilitation, traditional use, utilization and other zones. Population growth causes land cover changes in GLNP and in its buffer zone. One of the approaches to assessing rapid land cover changes is by employing a remote sensing approach. The purposes
more » ... oach. The purposes of this study are: (1) to analyze land cover change between the periods of 1996, 2005 and 2014; (2) to analyze the relationship between the population pressure index and land cover changes; and (3) to propose a guidance and recommendations for a better management of land cover changes in GLNP. The results showed that the main land cover classes at GLNP and its buffer zone in the period between 1996 and 2014 were forests, grass/shrubs, and cropland. Compared with the proposed zoning and the provincial master plan, there were land cover mismatches in 2014, especially in Southeast Aceh Regency. The land cover changes analysis indicated a significant decrease of forest land cover from 1996 to 2014. In the period between 1996 and 2005, the analysis showed the highest increase for cropland whilst in the period between 2005 and 2014, the highest increase was observed for plantations. Abstrak. Fungsi utama dari Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser (GLNP), sebagai salah satu dari kawasan konservasi yang ada di Provinsi Aceh dan Provinsi Sumatera Utara, adalah untuk melindungi dan melestarikan sumberdaya keanekaragaman hayati yang terdapat di dalamnya. Sebagai Taman Nasional, GLNP memiliki kebijakan pengelolaan yang harus didasarkan pada sistem zonasi yang terdiri dari zona inti, rimba, rehabilitasi, penggunaan tradisional, pemanfaatan dan zona-zona lainnya. Peningkatan jumlah penduduk menyebabkan perubahan penutupan lahan di kawasan GLNP dan zona penyangganya. Salah satu pendekatan yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengetahui perubahan penggunaan lahan secara cepat adalah menggunakan teknik penginderaan jauh. Untuk itu, tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1) Untuk menganalisis perubahan penutupan lahan pada tahun 1996, 2005 dan 2014; (2) Untuk menganalisis hubungan antara indeks tekanan penduduk dengan perubahan penutupan lahan; dan (3) Untuk menyusun arahan dan rekomendasi pengendalian perubahan penutupan lahan yang mendukung 1 Kata kunci: indeks tekanan penduduk, perubahan penutupan lahan, Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser. Ernest Pandiangan Grass/shrubs are most widely found in the regencies of Gayo Lues, Langkat and Southeast Aceh. Cropland is the most extensive in Southeast Aceh, Langkat and South Aceh Regencies. In 2014, Southeast Aceh Regency, Langkat Regency, and Gayo Lues are still the regencies of GLNP and its buffer zone with the greatest human interference. Land Cover to Support The Management of Gunung Leuser National Park 93 Current zoning allotment is no longer compatible with the zoning criteria in the Regulation of the Minister of Environment and Forestry No. 76/2015, which mentions a core zone, wilderness zone, and rehabilitation zone. According to this regulation, the core zone and wilderness zone are areas with good natural conditions, with original biota and physical conditions, without human disturbance and absolutely protected. However, in reality, GLNP experiences human disturbance. This can be seen from the fact that the core and wilderness zones contain a land cover of plantations, cropland, settlements and paddy fields. This means these zones are no longer in pristine condition and without any human interference. Plantations, cropland, settlements and paddy fields in the core and wilderness zones add up to 1,729 ha (0.19% of the core and wilderness zone). Forest in the rehabilitation zone covers 96,804 ha (67.33% of the rehabilitation zone) Meanwhile, the rehabilitation zone is meant for damaged areas in need of ecosystem recovery. Thus, it is feared that an ecosystem recovery program will not be effective and optimal (Tables 8-9).
doi:10.5614/jrcp.2017.28.2.1 fatcat:myf63ueikrhovciiqi33jtdyry