Complete replication of poliovirus in vitro: preinitiation RNA replication complexes require soluble cellular factors for the synthesis of VPg-linked RNA
Journal of Virology
Translation of poliovirion RNA in HeLa S10 extracts resulted in the formation of RNA replication complexes which catalyzed the asymmetric replication of poliovirus RNA. Synthesis of poliovirus RNA was detected in unfractionated HeLa S10 translation reactions and in RNA replication complexes isolated from HeLa S10 translation reactions by pulse-labeling with [ 32 P]CTP. The RNA replication complexes formed in vitro contained replicative-intermediate RNA and were enriched in viral protein 3CD and
... ral protein 3CD and the membrane-associated viral proteins 2C, 2BC, and 3AB. Genome-length poliovirus RNA covalently linked to VPg was synthesized in large amounts by the replication complexes. RNA replication was highly asymmetric, with predominantly positive-polarity RNA products. Both anti-VPg antibody and guanidine HCl inhibited RNA replication and virus formation in the HeLa S10 translation reactions without affecting viral protein synthesis. The inhibition of RNA synthesis by guanidine was reversible. The reversible nature of guanidine inhibition was used to demonstrate the formation of preinitiation RNA replication complexes in reaction mixes containing 2 mM guanidine HCl. Preinitiation complexes sedimented upon centrifugation at 15,000 ؋ g and initiated RNA replication upon their resuspension in reaction mixes lacking guanidine. Initiation of RNA synthesis by preinitiation complexes did not require active protein synthesis or the addition of soluble viral proteins. Initiation of RNA synthesis by preinitiation complexes, however, was absolutely dependent on soluble HeLa cytoplasmic factors. Preinitiation complexes also catalyzed the formation of infectious virus in reaction mixes containing exogenously added capsid proteins. The titer of infectious virus produced in such trans-encapsidation reactions reached 4 ؋ 10 7 PFU/ml. The HeLa S10 translation-RNA replication reactions represent an efficient in vitro system for authentic poliovirus replication, including protein synthesis, polyprotein processing, RNA replication, and virus assembly.