Editorial: Immuno-Epigenetic Markers for Infectious Diseases

Eduardo José Melo dos Santos, Glen N. Barber, Ricardo Ishak, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto
2019 Frontiers in Immunology  
Editorial on the Research Topic Immuno-Epigenetic Markers for Infectious Diseases The ability of microorganisms to infect and cause disease in higher organisms depends on: (i) the nature of the infecting organism(s), (ii) the route of infection, (iii) virulence factors, which enable long-term survival within the organism, and (iv) the immune defense mechanisms of the host. Molecular epidemiological investigations provide evidence regarding the etiology and mechanisms by which microorganisms
more » ... e disease, and the results are used to develop strategies for disease prevention. While classic immunogenetic biomarkers (single nucleotide polymorphisms-SNPs) have been shown to be related to resistance or susceptibility to infectious disease, new studies have highlighted alterations in the epigenetic landscape of immune cells as an equally important means of detecting and understanding the progression of infectious diseases. The constant evolutive race between host and infectious agents creates diverse scenarios ranging from differential susceptibility to infection to a large variability at pathogenesis, disease progression, and response to therapy. In the center of these challenging diseases is the plasticity of the immune response, along with a myriad of environmental factors. This cross-talk among genes, pathways, and environment, that is carried out mainly by epigenetic actors can be used as biomarkers to predict disease progression and prognosis. In the present Research Topic, original articles and reviews provided a comprehensive overview of immune and epigenetic biomarkers related to infectious diseases. Bacterial and viral diseases were approached by the original article from Barletta-Naveca et al. who reported an association of Toll-like receptor 1 polymorphism with multibacillary/paucibacillary tuberculosis, along with sociodemographic and behavioral factors, as well as a classic and novel association study of Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infections, IL-6 and IL-8 polymorphisms, and heart diseases (Almeida et al.). Moreover, Pereira et al. showed that polymorphisms in the FOXP3 gene regulatory region are associated with viral load and liver enzyme levels in chronic viral hepatitis, and Brites-Alves et al. reported that levels of IL-6 are related to the risk of cardiovascular events in HIV-1-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy. The plasticity of host-pathogen interaction was addressed by Ramsuran et al., who reviewed the polymorphisms in untranslated genomic regions and their role in the regulatory processes of infectious diseases. In a similar, but more focused approach, Ellwanger et al. reviewed the role of SNP in microRNA genes and/or their binding sites in infection by five major human viral pathogens: hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human papillomavirus (HPV), showing the potential clinical applications of this approach.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.02719 pmid:31824503 pmcid:PMC6882277 fatcat:toyqvdqfrzdvndzbsjyy5mc6ru