Thermometry at the nanoscale

Carlos D. S. Brites, Patricia P. Lima, Nuno J. O. Silva, Angel Millán, Vitor S. Amaral, Fernando Palacio, Luís D. Carlos
2012 Nanoscale  
Non-invasive precise thermometers working at the nanoscale with high spatial resolution, where the conventional methods are ineffective, have emerged over the last couple of years as a very active field of research. This has been strongly stimulated by the numerous challenging requests arising from nanotechnology and biomedicine. This critical review offers a general overview of recent examples of luminescent and non-luminescent thermometers working at nanometric scale. Luminescent thermometers
more » ... escent thermometers encompass organic dyes, QDs and Ln 3+ ions as thermal probes, as well as more complex thermometric systems formed by polymer and organic-inorganic hybrid matrices encapsulating these emitting centres. Non-luminescent thermometers comprise of scanning thermal microscopy, nanolithography thermometry, carbon nanotube thermometry and biomaterials thermometry. Emphasis has been put on ratiometric examples reporting spatial resolution lower than 1 micron, as, for instance, intracellular thermometers based on organic dyes, thermoresponsive polymers, mesoporous silica NPs, QDs, and Ln 3+ -based up-converting NPs and b-diketonate complexes. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in the development for highly sensitive ratiometric thermometers operating at the physiological temperature range with submicron spatial resolution.
doi:10.1039/c2nr30663h pmid:22763389 fatcat:pdx435742fcflirbh7gegdic24