The microvine, a model to study the effect of temperature on grapevine latent bud development and fruitfulness
Aim: The success of inflorescence primordia initiation and differentiation within latent buds (i.e. bud fruitfulness) is a critical issue for grapevine yield sustainability under climate change. The aim of the present study was to track the timing and rate of inflorescence development in latent buds along the cane and to quantify their responses to elevated day/night (D/N) temperatures.Methods and Results: The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions, using the microvine model,
... ch is suitable for establishment in small areas. Two imagery methods for analyzing bud anatomy were assessed: light microscopy and x-ray microtomography. Light microscopy was laborious, but it was the most accurate method for investigating organogenesis in the primordial shoot of the latent bud. In plants grown in a greenhouse (D/N, 25°C/15°C), the number of phytomer primordia in latent buds increased linearly from the apical to the basal buds on the cane. A maximum of six phytomers and two inflorescence primordia were observed beneath the 20th bud position that is, slightly fewer than usually reported with macrovines. The first and second inflorescences started to differentiate at the 14th and 18th bud position, respectively. Temperature increases in the growth chamber (D/N, 20–30°C/15–25°C) only slightly changed the final number of preformed phytomers and the probability of inflorescence primordia differentiation per bud. However, elevated temperature sharply accelerated and thereby shortened development of the latent bud primordial shoot, resulting in differentiation of the first inflorescence primordia straight from the fifth bud position. Based on the spatiotemporal conversion of bud position into thermal time, the first inflorescence started to differentiate 332 growing degree days (°Cd) (or 41 days) after bud emergence at D/N 20°C/15°C, and only 98°Cd (or 5 days) after bud emergence at D/N 35°C/25°C. Finally, the number of preformed phytomers was shown to correlate with primary bud length and cane diameter, independent of temperature. These easily measured variables may be used as indicators of bud developmental stage and potential bud fruitfulness in further studies using the microvine.Conclusions: The microvine appears to be suitable for parameterizing a developmental model of grapevine latent buds under controlled environmental conditions and when evaluating the response to elevated D/N temperatures.Significance and impact of the study: The precise description of the timing and rate of differentiation of phytomers and inflorescences opens new perspectives for understanding the molecular processes underlying the response of bud fruitfulness to environmental constraints.