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Confidentiality and efficient bandwidth utilization require a combination of compression and encryption of digital images. In this paper, a new method for joint image compression and encryption based on set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) with optimized Kd-tree and multiple chaotic maps was proposed. First, the lossless compression and encryption of the original images were performed based on integer wavelet transform (IWT) with SPIHT. Wavelet coefficients undergo diffusions anddoi:10.3390/app8101963 fatcat:ncoukmnn2rhhhb34qkoxhb2sgq