Diagnosis and management of Adenosine Deaminase 2 Deficiency children: the experience from China
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a rare autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations in the ADA2 gene. Few Chinese cases have been reported. We describe and compare the clinical features, genotypes, and treatments of Chinese DADA2 patients and non-Chinese patients.METHODS: Primary immunodeficiency disease panel or whole-exome sequencing was performed for suspected cases, and assays for adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) enzyme activity were also carried out for the patients
... nd their parents. Case reports of Chinese and non-Chinese patients with DADA2 were searched in PubMed and Chinese national databases.RESULTS: Seven unrelated children from China with DADA2 were included in our study. Five were identified at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, and two had been reported previously (1 on PubMed and 1 in Chinese literature). Fourteen mutations in ADA2 were identified, 7 of which have not previously been reported in non-Chinese patients. Four children who underwent enzymatic analysis had lower ADA2 activity compared with their parents. Phenotypic manifestations included fever, skin symptoms, vasculitis, and neurologic involvement. Treatments varying from steroids, immunosuppressants, and tocilizumab, anti-TNF therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were effective depending on phenotype and severity.CONCLUSION: This study includes the largest number of Chinese DADA2 patients to date. We recommend the combination of enzymatic analysis with gene screening to confirm the diagnosis. Different genotypes were observed among Chinese DADA2 patients; most phenotypes were similar to those of non-Chinese DADA2 patients, except for growth retardation. Disease remission might not be achieved with anti-IL-6 therapy.